Effect of Insulin on Fat Metabolism
- Help in fat synthesis in liver which is main site
- Help in fat entrance into adipose cells
- Help in fat storage in adipose tissues (entrap the fats , do not allow them to leave adipose cells)
Effect of Insulin on Protein Metabolism
- Increase amino acids uptake into the cells.
- Increases the translation of messenger RNA, thus forming new proteins.
- Increases the rate of transcription of selected DNA genetic sequences in the cell nuclei, thus
forming increased quantities of RNA and more protein synthesis.
- Inhibits the catabolism of proteins, thus decreasing the rate of amino acid release from the cells,
especially from the muscle cells.
- Conserves the amino acids in the protein stores In the liver by decreasing the activity of enzymes
that promote gluconeogenesis. (Because the substrates most used for synthesis of glucose by
gluconeogenesis are the plasma amino acids)
Insulin and Growth Hormone Interact Synergistically to Promote Growth
- These two hormones function synergistically to promote growth, each performing a specific function that is separate from that of the other.
- Perhaps a small part of this necessity for both hormones results from the fact that each promotes cellular uptake of a different selection of amino acids, all of which are required if growth is to be achieved.