Pineal Gland Physiology Lecture SlideshowPineal Gland Physiology Lecture Slideshow
  • Also called as Epiphysis Cerebri
  • The pineal gland is a pine cone shaped gland
    of the endocrine system.
  • The Gland is conical, grey body measuring 5 to
    8mm in length and 3 to 5mm in its greatest
  • A structure of the diencephalon of the brain,
    the pineal gland produces several hormones
    including melatonin.
  • Melatonin influences sexual development and
    sleep cycles. The pineal gland is composed of
    cells called pinealocytes and the cells of the
    nervous system called glial cells.
  • The pineal gland connects the endocrine
    system with the nervous system in that it
    converts nerve signals from the sympathetic
    system of the peripheral nervous system into
    hormone signals.


  • The pineal gland is involved in several
    functions of the body including:-
  • Secretion of the hormone melatonin
  • Regulation of endocrine functions
  • Conversion of nervous system signals to
    endocrine signals
  • Causes feeling of sleepiness
  • Influences sexual development .

Histological organization

  • Pia matter: the delicate inner layer of connective
    tissue that surrounds the brain
  • Surrounding the pineal body
  • Which functions as its capsule and which sends
    connective tissue septa into the pineal body
    subdividing it into lobules.
  • In the pineal we find two cell types,pinealocytes
    (95% large light and round nuclei) and
    astrocytes(glial cells,dark and elongated)
  • Apart from cells the pineal gland also contains
    sand— brain sand( corpora arenacea)
  • These are calcium containing concretions in
    the pineal parenchyma, which increase in size
    and number with age. These concretions are
    radio opaque.
  • They don’t have any other function.
  • Interstitial cells- cells of the second type found
    amoung the pinealocytes and in greater
    number in the stalk of the gland.
  • They have elongated nuclei.
  • They resemble the astrocytes of the brain in
    having long process and an abundance of
    intermediate filaments throughout the

Leave a Reply

× How can I help you?